Ruins of the Waterway

The Parthenon. Machu Picchu. The Pyramids of Giza. There’s a reason why these sites are among the most popular tourist attractions in the world. People love ruins, perhaps more so than well-preserved buildings and structures. There’s more mystique and ambiguity. We don’t see their original appearance so our imaginations must take over. And it’s this creative process that emotionally binds us to the past.

So what could be more fun than discussing ruins in Wellesley? If you didn’t know, there are actually a number of such sites in town. In this post, I’d like to focus on just one: the Waterway, a derelict canal and overgrown parkland that once made up the heart of Indian Springs Park, an ambitious — but unsuccessful — subdivision in Wellesley Farms at the turn of the 20th Century.

But before I discuss the history of Indian Springs Park, let me start by showing some photographs of the ruins of the Waterway (all taken by Joshua Dorin in March 2013).

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Note the abandoned road (now a wooded path) on the left

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I also made a movie of the ruins. Just a warning…I’ve heard from a few people that this video can be a bit dizzying. Unfortunately, I can’t alter the movie without compromising its quality.)

So what are the origins of the Waterway and why did it fall into ruins? As I mentioned, the Waterway was the centerpiece of the Indian Springs Park subdivision. It was the creation of Harry J. Jaquith, who in 1894-95 began to develop his 80-acre property that stretched from Washington Street to the Wellesley Farms railroad station between the Cochituate Aqueduct and Glen Road. (His large estate house, built in 1875 out of hollow concrete blocks and known as Heckle’s Castle after its original owner, William C. Heckle, was located on Washington Street to the northeast of where Hillside Road is today. It burned down in 1909.)

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Eastern half of Indian Spring Park
(Source: Norfolk County Registry of Deeds)

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Western half of Indian Springs Park
(Source: Norfolk County Registry of Deeds)

As you can see in the subdivision plans, the property was broken up into 73 lots and the following streets were laid out:

  • Hillside Road
  • Orchard Street
  • Sylvan Road (originally known as Montvale Road)
  • Springdale Avenue
  • Indian Springs Way (originally part of Hillside Road)
  • Glen Cross Road (originally part of Croton Street)
  • The Waterway

It’s this last street — the Waterway — that led from Glen Road to the canal and a basin that funneled water from Indian Springs Brook. The canal was a brick-lined channel that divided the road for about 300 feet. On the other side of Hillside Road, there was the basin — a more elaborate brick structure designed to direct the flow of the water. Steps led down from Hillside Road to a semi-circular walkway around the basin and there seems to have been a footbridge over the brook. Adjacent to this structure was a large grassy park that backed up to the aqueduct. In addition, there was a lake between the canal and Glen Road that collected the water flowing from the canal. Not much is known about either the construction or the use of the Waterway. Local lore suggests that residents may have taken Sunday strolls around the canal in their horse-drawn carriages.

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The Waterway
(Source: Wellesley Atlas of 1897)

Unfortunately, the Waterway fell into poor condition soon after its construction, as it was reportedly in ruins by 1906. This was no doubt a result of the failure of Indian Springs Park — only a small handful of lots were sold within the first decade.

Today, the Waterway is in complete ruins. The brick-lined canal is falling apart. Much of the basin is either missing or buried under layers of leaves and dirt. And the entire area is overgrown with trees and weeds. In fact, the road on one side of the canal is now a wooded path. This post, therefore, serves an additional purpose beyond discussing Wellesley’s history. I propose calling for the restoration (or at least the stabilization) of the Waterway. It’s a unique piece of history.

I’d also like to inquire about other abandoned or ruined historical structures in Wellesley. Here are a few that come to my mind:

  • The Wellesley Farms railroad station
  • The railroad bridge that crosses the Charles River behind Waterstone (the former Grossman’s site) in Lower Falls — although it was recently paved over to serve as a walkway across the river.
  • Remnants of the mill/dam and the ice house at the north end of Longfellow Pond. I also believe that part of the foundation of the Hastings farmhouse that stood to the east of the pond may still exist, but I’m not 100% sure.
  • The Sudbury and Cochituate Aqueducts and their associated structures: the Rosemary Brook siphon chamber building on Wellesley Avenue, the Waban Arches, and two waste weirs and gatehouses located just north of Morses Pond and on the Crosstown Trail near Woodlawn Avenue.
  • The Ellis stone barn just south of Route 9 adjacent to the Charles River near the Newton line.
  • There may be a few relicts left from Ridge Hill Farms on the former Baker Estate on Grove Street near the Needham line. I’m pretty sure any ruins that still exist are on the eastern side of Sabrina Lake on private property.

If you know of any others, please leave a comment. I promise not to go snooping, but it would be of huge historical value to have an inventory of the ruins in Wellesley.

Sources:

  • Norfolk County Registry of Deeds
  • 1897 Atlas of Wellesley
  • Wellesley Townsman: 15 June 1906; 10 December 1909; 24 May 1956

Rock Ridge Hall

The development of the Cliff Estates is a subject that’s been written about many times over the years. And in each of these narratives, there’s only a brief mention, if any, of Rock Ridge Hall, a private school located on Cliff Road during the early 1900s. That, of course, made me curious. Were details about the school lost to history? Or was it too insignificant to write about? Turns out, much of the school’s history wasn’t lost. It was just scattered and difficult to piece together. But that doesn’t mean that the school wasn’t an important part of the story.

Before I try to reconstruct the history of Rock Ridge Hall, I need to give a brief overview of the earliest development of the Cliff Estates so that you have a good understanding of the geography of the area at the time that the school opened. So let’s start with Albion Robert Clapp — the “Father of the Cliff Estates.” When Clapp bought the 15-acre Ayling farm (now known as 11 Cliff Road) in 1867, the street extended only as far as the current location of Garden Road. All the land north to the Weston town line and west to Weston Road was part of the Hundreds Woods. Over the next decade, Clapp began acquiring some of this land, but it wasn’t until the late 1870s that he began developing part of it. The first houses built were on the east side of Chestnut Street (which was the original name of the lower stretch of Cliff Road). This was in part to avoid building on the steep hill that gives Cliff Road its name. Clapp soon, however, carved into that hill and extended Cliff Road further north. By 1897, he had built nearly twenty houses in the vicinity of Cliff Road:

It was at the northern edge of this development that George Rantoul White established Rock Ridge Hall. An 1886 Harvard graduate and former chemistry teacher at Phillips Exeter, White had long dreamed of running his own school. But the opportunity didn’t present itself until 1899 when he married Albion Clapp’s daughter, Irma May Clapp, and was given five acres of land on Cliff Road on the day of their wedding. Although the details regarding the construction of the school’s campus are a bit unclear, it seems most likely that the main building (known as Rock Ridge Hall) was built that fall or the following spring. During that time, White actually was on an extended honeymoon in Europe where he was able to study several prominent English preparatory schools as he laid the groundwork for Rock Ridge.

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Rock Ridge Hall
(With permission from cardcow.com)

The year 1899 was also when White’s father died and that may have given him another reason to start his own school in Wellesley. At the time, his parents were in the process of constructing their own house at 41 Chestnut Street across from the home of their daughter and George’s sister, Mary Hawthorne (White) Bunker, at 46 Chestnut Street. It seems probable then that White would have relocated there as well to care for his mother and younger brother, Edward, who was still a student and who would later prepare for Harvard at Rock Ridge under his older brother’s tutelage.

Rock Ridge Hall opened in October of 1900. Although the first class had only eight students, the school’s enrollment quickly grew to seven-five by 1906. This increase was no doubt a testament to White’s strong abilities as headmaster. He had created an elite private school that was extremely successful preparing students for college — in particular, Harvard — but also provided the education needed to enter a scientific school or business career. It’s no surprise then that Rock Ridge attracted students from throughout the United States as well as foreign countries such as China and Japan. Even Booker T. Washington, a leading proponent of education, sent his own son there. (Booker Jr., however, was quite a troublemaker and not interested in academics, and soon transferred to the Wellesley School for Boys on Linden Street.)

In addition to the high school, a small preparatory program for boys of grammar school age, known as the Hawthorne School, was added in 1904. These younger students were housed across the street from Rock Ridge Hall in a large dormitory known as Hawthorne House. Collectively, the two schools were known as the Rock Ridge School.

The Rock Ridge campus also included an industrial arts shop, a large gymnasium, a swimming pool, bowling alleys, tennis courts, a baseball field and, of course, Rockridge Pond. An additional dormitory, Gray House, was added around 1912. The following map shows the extent of the Rock Ridge campus in relation to the modern geography. Note that Hawthorne House and Gray House still stand at 54 Cliff Road and 25 Hawthorne Road, respectively.

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Map of the Rock Ridge Campus

Unfortunately, this map doesn’t give you an appreciation for the imposing presence of Rock Ridge Hall. As its name suggests, the main building sat on top of a rocky precipice. This, of course, was the perfect location for the centerpiece of the campus. However, this site would be problematic when a fire (caused by a defective flue) broke out on the top floor of the main building in 1911. Initially, Wellesley’s firefighters were unable to fight the flames because the water pressure was too low at the top of the hill. It wasn’t until the arrival of the Newton Fire Department — which was far better equipped — that the fire was extinguished and Rock Ridge Hall was saved from total destruction. Fortunately, nobody was injured. But the students, whose living quarters were on the upper floors, lost most of their personal possessions. The damaged portion of Rock Ridge Hall was quickly rebuilt and the school soon reopened.

Despite the rebuilding of Rock Ridge Hall, the school did not stay open very much longer. In 1915, White retired and sold the entire campus to Mary S. Nichols, who used the former school as a seasonal resort and boarding house. Unfortunately, it must not have been profitable because she was foreclosed upon in 1925. The property was then broken up and sold the following year. Although Hawthorne House and Gray House were converted into single family residences, the rest of the school’s buildings, including Rock Ridge Hall, were torn down. Over a dozen large dwellings were built in their place, which included the Rockridge Road development.

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Left: The former Hawthorne House at 54 Cliff Road
Right: The former Gray House at 25 Hawthorne Road
(Photos taken by Joshua Dorin in March of 2013)

So even though there are very few visual reminders of the Rock Ridge School, its brief history is an important part of the story about the development of the Cliff Estates. It is also another example of the high value that Wellesley places on education. Schools like Rock Ridge, Dana Hall, Wellesley College, the Babson Institute, and even the early public schools made Wellesley into the desirable community that still exists today. Why Rock Ridge School was forgotten about for so long is beyond me.

Sources:

  • Norfolk County Registry of Deeds
  • Wellesley Historical Commission files: #15-17 Chestnut Street; #21 Chestnut Street; #41 Chestnut Street; #46 Chestnut Street; #5 Cliff Road; #11 Cliff Road; #34 Cliff Road
  • Needham Map of 1876
  • Wellesley Atlas of 1897
  • Wellesley Townsman: 11 May 1906; 5 October 1906; 31 March 1911; 26 November 1915; 30 April 1926; 14 May 1926; 11 June 1926; 22 July 1948; 19 August 1954; 24 May 1956; 4 June 1981
  • Boston Evening Transcript: 15 September 1906
  • Secretary’s Report by Harvard College, Class of 1886 (1907)
  • The Harvard Graduates’ Magazine, Volume 16 (1908)
  • Munsey’s Magazine, Volume 39 (1908)
  • Who’s Who in New England, Volume 1 by Albert Nelson Marquis (1909)
  • New York Times: 26 March 1911
  • Cosmopolitan, Volume 53 by Schlicht & Field (1912)
  • Secretary’s Third Report by Harvard College, Class of 1908 (1920)
  • My Valuable Time: The Story of Paul Bridgman Boyd by Amy Sherman Bridgman (1938)
  • Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901-1915 by Louis R. Harlan (1983):
  • Find a Grave: George Rantoul White

Additional images which might be of interest — from The Country Calendar, Volume 1 (1905):

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Brown Elementary School

(Apologies for not posting recently. I was working on five different posts, none of which came together easily. If you’d like to be notified by email when I write a new post, enter your email address into the widget to the right.)

Just a few weeks ago, the School Committee approved a plan proposed by the new Wellesley Superintendent of Schools to suspend K-3 enrollment at Hardy Elementary School through the end of the school year. Overcrowding at Hardy had become too much of a problem. And now, as the School Committee tries to figure out a solution — most likely, redistricting — I’m sure that the Town is regretting closing and selling several elementary school buildings during the 1970s and 1980s. At its peak, there were twelve elementary schools in Wellesley: Bates, Fiske, Hardy, Hunnewell, Schofield, Sprague, Upham, Brown, Kingsbury, Perrin, Phillips, and Warren. The first seven are the only schools still open. Perrin and Phillips no longer stand, Brown and Kingsbury are condos, and Warren is occupied by the Recreation and Health Departments.

So what better time to bring the history of one of these closed schools back into the limelight? Remind the Town exactly what it lost over three decades ago. Let’s start with the Seldon L. Brown Elementary School, a charming little schoolhouse on Garden Road that opened in 1924.

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The former Brown Elementary School – built 1924
(Photo taken by Joshua Dorin in March 2013)

Brown School was one of four elementary schools that opened in a span of only fourteen months between September 1923 and October 1924. At the time, Wellesley was in the midst of the largest population boom in the town’s history — from 1920 to 1930, Wellesley’s population grew from 6,000 to 11,000, a near doubling in only one decade. The five existing elementary schools (Hunnewell, Phillips, North, Fiske, and the Fells School) were bursting at their seams. Forty students in each class was not uncommon. In a remarkable feat of efficiency, the Town was able to develop and approve plans for the four new school buildings within months of taking up the issue. Construction began immediately. The first school to open was Hardy in September 1923, followed by Kingsbury in January 1924, Sprague in September 1924, and Brown in October 1924.

For the first six weeks of the 1924-25 school year, before construction of the Brown schoolhouse was complete, ninety students attended class in the gymnasium of Rock Ridge Hall, a former private school on the site of Rockridge Road. These students had been kicked out of their old classrooms at Phillips School in order to accommodate the growing junior high school population (who shared the same building). Although the temporary facilities were adequate at first, the old gym failed to keep the children warm as the temperature dropped. Even the installation of a new electric heating system didn’t help. Finally, when Brown School was completed in late October, the students and their teachers left their makeshift classrooms with their books and personal belongings and marched along a wooded path (that would become Lanark Road) to their new school.

The new schoolhouse must have been a sight for sore eyes. And what a sight, indeed. Brown more closely resembled a mansion than an elementary school, its design inspired by English manors constructed during the late Elizabethan and early Jacobean periods. This unique schoolhouse — with its multi-gabled roof, decorative finials, stone mullion windows, and tall chimneys — was designed by noted architect and Wellesley resident, William Hungerford Brainerd, who (unlike most builders in Wellesley today) appreciated the value that a beautiful building adds to a neighborhood and community.

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Source: Our Town of November 1903

So who was Seldon L. Brown? Better known as “Pa” Brown by the entire Wellesley community, Seldon Lester Brown was the principal of Wellesley High School from 1886 to 1916, as well as the Latin teacher (and occasionally math and civics teacher). A gifted and passionate instructor, Brown had a habit of flipping the switch that controlled the school’s clocks in order to prolong the school day a few extra minutes. He was also deeply invested in the success of the high school’s athletic teams and was one of their greatest supporters. Outside of school, Brown was active in town government, served as president of the Wellesley Club, and was a trustee of the Wellesley Free Library for twenty years. It is, therefore, no surprise that the new elementary school was named for Brown. Attaching his name to the Garden Road schoolhouse was also fitting because Brown resided nearby at 22 Colburn Road and even owned land that became part of the school grounds.

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The Seldon L. Brown House at 22 Colburn Road — built 1914
(Photo taken by Joshua Dorin in March 2013)

Brown School was K-6 until 1975 when it became one of three grade 5-6 schools. In 1981, fifty-seven years after first opening its doors, Brown closed as a result of declining enrollment and Proposition 2 ½. The schoolhouse was sold by the Town two years later to a developer (for only $350,000!) and converted into the Garden Close condominiums.

Now, in 2013, as Wellesley struggles with overcrowded elementary schools, I’m sure the School Committee wishes it had more vacant schools to help alleviate the problem. Perhaps the Town should have realized thirty years ago that some cost-cutting decisions can’t be undone.

Sources:

  • Norfolk County Registry of Deeds
  • Our Town: November 1903
  • Who’s Who in Pennsylvania: A Biographical Dictionary of Contemporaries, Volume 1 (1909)
  • Town Annual Report: 1913, 1914
  • Wellesley Townsman: 21 July 1922; 23 March 1923; 15 June 1923; 7 September 1923; 23 November 1923; 25 January 1924; 20 June 1924; 12 September 1924; 3 October 1924; 10 October 1924; 24 October 1924; 31 October 1924; 4 May 1934; 18 February 1943; 17 November 1949; 28 August 1975; 29 January 1981; 3 September 1981; 14 April 1983; 21 February 2013

Booker T. Washington

I’m not just a Wellesley history junkie. I also love pretty much anything having to do with American history. So it’s especially fascinating to me when both subjects come together, as is the case in this post. It concerns Booker T. Washington, one of the foremost leaders of the African-American community during the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. Well, to be specific, this post actually focuses on two of his children who attended school in Wellesley. But it still sheds light on Washington, not just as a parent, but also as a proponent of education. He was, after all, one of the founders of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. So it shouldn’t be surprising that he took every effort to make sure that his children received the best possible education.

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Booker T. Washington with his wife and three children
Portia and Booker Jr. are on the right
(With permission from the Tuskegee University Archives)

The first of his children to attend school in Wellesley was his daughter, Portia, who enrolled at Wellesley College in the fall of 1901. She had been attending the Tuskegee Institute, but felt unchallenged by its curriculum. So her father arranged for her to take three classes at Wellesley: music theory, piano, and German. Unfortunately, Portia struggled in these courses and also suffered from severe loneliness. As a special student, she wasn’t allowed to live on campus and roomed instead in a house on Howe Street and ate her meals with several college professors, including Katharine Lee Bates, Katharine Coman, and Emily Greene Balch. And although race was not the reason that Portia lived off campus — at the time, there were a few black students who lived in the dormitories — it is believed that she may have been subject to racism by some of the many southern white students at the school. Portia, therefore, found it difficult to make friends with her classmates. There is no doubt that this social discomfort was detrimental to her academic performance and resulted in the failure of one of her music classes, a subject at which she normally excelled.

The ordeal was only made worse for Portia when newspapers across the country reported that the college did not allow her to return the following year because of her failing grades. In addition, the media spread rumors that the faculty pressed for Portia’s dismissal in order to end the “race war” between the students. These reports, however, were untrue. In actuality, she had planned to spend only one year at Wellesley. Portia enrolled the following fall at Bradford Academy in Haverhill, where she would graduate three years later and go on to become a successful concert pianist and music teacher.

The second part of this post involves Portia’s brother, Booker Jr., who arrived in Wellesley in early 1902. Unlike his sister, Booker Jr. was a bit of a troublemaker and not at all interested in academics. So perhaps Washington sent his son to Wellesley not just to help alleviate Portia’s homesickness, but also to provide a change of scenery for Booker Jr. After briefly attending Rock Ridge Hall, a private school located on the current site of Rockridge Road in the Cliff Estates, Booker Jr. transferred to the Wellesley School for Boys at 24 Linden Street (the former parsonage of the Village Congregational Church). It was a small school run by Rev. Edward A. Benner and could provide the attention needed to help Booker Jr. succeed. Unfortunately, Benner was unsuccessful at first. Booker Jr. continued to neglect his studies, and was also caught smoking in his room, sneaking out after dark, and even ditching class to visit his sister. It was only after some stern parenting from his father that Booker Jr. improved both his behavior and his grades. He stayed at the school for two more years and then returned to Tuskegee to finish his education.

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The Wellesley School for Boys at 24 Linden Street
Left photograph taken from Benner (1904)
Right photograph taken by Joshua Dorin in March 2013

On a separate note, it was during the time that Booker Jr. was in Wellesley that his father gave a lecture in town. Speaking at the Maugus Club on Abbott Road in November 1903, Washington described the struggles that the black population faced nearly forty years after the end of slavery. One might wonder why he would give such a lecture to an almost exclusively white audience. But these speeches were an important component of the early Civil Rights movement: the speakers served as examples of the educational progress made by the African-American community. Washington, in particular, was a powerful orator, able to inspire and rally citizens behind his cause. The following excerpt from his Wellesley lecture, describing what African-Americans have already accomplished, shows this ability: “…they came to this country with chain on wrist and ankle — were freed with hoe and spade in hand: — they came pagans — were freed Christians with Bible and spelling book at command: — they came without a language — were freed speaking the proud Anglo-Saxon tongue.” Few speeches in the history of this town were as significant or eloquent.

Let me conclude by adding that even though this post is about Booker T. Washington and his family, I think it also says a lot about the town of Wellesley. Just as Washington believed that education was the gateway to success, the town has invested much of its resources into developing and maintaining a strong public school system. In addition, there has been a countless number of private schools in Wellesley over the last century and a half. It is no wonder that Booker T. Washington sent his children to school in a town that places such a heavy emphasis on education.

Sources:

  • Wellesley Historical Commission files – #24 Linden Street
  • Tuskegee University Archives Online Repository
  • New York Times: 2 November 1902; 15 November 1902
  • Our Town: December 1903
  • Glimpses of Wellesley by E.H. Benner (1904)
  • The Booker T. Washington Papers, Volume 6: 1901-2 by Louis R. Harlan (1977)
  • The Afro American: 11 March 1978
  • Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901-1915 by Louis R. Harlan (1983)
  • Guest of Honor by Deborah Davis (2013)

Katharine Coman

While I was attending the Wellesley public schools, pretty much our only lessons on the history of the town involved Katharine Lee Bates. Don’t get me wrong — I think her story as a Wellesley College professor and author of the patriotic hymn, America the Beautiful, is extremely interesting and quite inspirational. Furthermore, Bates provides an example of an independent woman who achieved professional success within a society that limited the opportunities for women. The lesson, therefore, serves as an important supplement to our regular androcentric history curriculum. But is she the only such example from Wellesley? Absolutely not. And we don’t need to stray too far from Bates to find a second woman. Just consider her closest friend and fellow Wellesley College professor, Katharine Coman.

Don’t worry if you haven’t heard of Coman. Unfortunately, she never received strong name recognition outside of academia. But within the fields of economics and history, Coman is well-known for her pioneering research. Deeply concerned about the working and living conditions of immigrants, women, and the poor, she traveled far and wide to study firsthand the problems that confronted these groups. It was this personal approach combined with rigorous analytics that helped give rise to the field of sociology. In fact, Coman became the first chair of the department of economics and sociology at Wellesley College in 1901. Through this position, she was able to make a significant impact on her colleagues and students. The most notable example is Emily Greene Balch, a fellow economics professor and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1946 for her work with the International Women’s Congress for Peace and Freedom.

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Katharine Coman in 1899
(With permission from the Wellesley College Archives)

And Coman’s efforts to seek social change extended far beyond the ivory tower. One of her greatest achievements was helping to organize the Chicago Garment Workers’ Strike of 1910-11 where 40,000 factory laborers — mostly female immigrants — protested wage cuts and poor working conditions. Coman was also an ardent supporter of insurance for the elderly and unemployed, with much of her efforts occurring during the last few years of her life as she struggled with an illness that forced her retirement in 1913. It was also during this time that she established the first free kindergarten in Wellesley, an idea that came to her while on bed rest at home and unable to ignore the sounds of unsupervised young children playing in the streets. And when the kindergarten outgrew its classroom in the current Odd Fellows Building on Central Street, Coman secured a donation to construct the Anne L. Page Memorial Building at the corner of Weston Road and Central Street. The program she helped develop, now known as the Child Study Center and run by the Department of Psychology at Wellesley College, has been operational for 101 years.

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Anne L. Page Memorial Building — built 1913
Source: Forum (1915)

Of course, it would be remiss of me not to discuss Coman’s connection to Katharine Lee Bates. After all, she was more than just a roommate and companion to Bates. She was a mentor and inspiration. When Bates arrived at Wellesley College to teach English, she viewed the job as merely a way to earn enough money so that she could write poetry during the rest of the year. But Coman’s intelligence and determination gave Bates reason to view her career “as a woman professor and scholar, pulling her up several levels, modeling serious vocational and professional commitment to her teaching, and introducing her to the wider world of social, economic, cultural, gender, and spiritual issues [Mahoney, 1998].”

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Home of Katharine Lee Bates & Katharine Coman
70 Curve Street — built 1907
(Photo taken by Joshua Dorin in Februrary of 2013)

So why not include a lesson on Coman in our public schools? If it weren’t for her, Wellesley might not have had the outstanding contributions of Katharine Lee Bates, nor would the nation have America the Beautiful. On its own, Coman’s story might just inspire a few of our young children just as so many others were a century ago.

Sources:

  • Wellesley Historical Commission files – #70 Curve Street
  • Wellesley Townsman: 23 October 1908; 15 January 1915; 17 August 1923; 12 August 1976;
  • Forum: 1915, Volume 24 by Time, Inc. (1915)
  • Notable American Women, 1607-1950: A Biographical Dictionary, Volume 2 by Edward T. James et al. (1971)
  • Seeing into the Life of Things by John L. Mahoney (1998)
  • Wellesley College Archives